Learn About Nanotechnology

What is Nanotechnology

Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale (which is about 1 to 100 nanometers). Nanotechnology is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. 

The ideas and concepts behind nanotechnology started with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Fundamental Concepts in Nanotechnology

It’s hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples: 

  • A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick 
  • A strand of hair is 80,000 –100,000 nanometers in diameter 
  • On a comparative scale, if a marble were a nanometer, then one meter would be the size of the Earth
  • Your fingernails grow about one nanometer per second 
Nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is made up of atoms—the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies. 

But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, it’s impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recently—about 30 years ago. 

Once scientists had the right tools, such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM), the age of nanotechnology was born. 

Today's scientists and engineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased control of light spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than their larger-scale counterparts.

Need more information? Click on this link to get a copy of the PDF of "Nanotechnology: Big Things from a Tiny World" by the National Nanotechnology Institute. 

(Information courtesy of Nano.gov)

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